The fruits bats are considered as a primary reservoir of Ebola virus. These bats are in large magnitude in Guinea and there are many small, insectivorous bats that live under the roofs of houses and natural reservoirs of West African countries.
These bats are reportedly assumed by kids who regularly hunt and grill them over nominal fires. Considering a marshmallow roast, excluding the mouse size bats consumed by kids who are food deficient.
Another clue was found by analysts, a big hollow tree that was burnt later. Some soil samples were collected from the tree base that finally provided DNA to identify bats. A big hollow tree had recently been an outstanding play spot for small kids of the village as well as dead boy. It was believed that Ebola transmission in 2014 occurred when a boy in Meliandou came in touch of Angolan bats that are free-tailed.
Species of bats have earlier been observed to hold protective elements of Ebola virus, but the antibodies are poor proof. These species have hence not been included in the group of basic suspects as a source of Ebola. That could alter, if additional sampling of Angolan free-tailed bats exposes any stronger information linking the bat and virus. If lab testing implicates this bat species, then an alarming question raised: why are there not more transmitters of Ebola virus in humans-outbreaks occurring every month and week.
Angolan free tailed bat is a wood species that has become a village life as the huge trees have been cut down and swapped by gardens and other arrangements; an abode of bat was changed. It has been almost linked with human beings. Now the bats live under the roofs of village abodes, just above where people live.
Since the natural source of Ebola has not yet been recognized, the way in which this virus emerges in a human individual at the beginning of virus eruption is still unpredictable. Although, researches assume that first person was infected by a fruit bat or monkey of apes that is known as a spillover case.
There are still many things to learn about the mysterious virus of Ebola, not only its source and its way to enter into humans, even also why it creeps around without hurdles. In order to control the disease by Ebola virus, a research team in Texas University has discovered a nasal spray EVD vaccine, on which a research is in process for seven years. In one study, all monkeys were injected with the vaccine to save them from the virus. When the scientists observed an injected version of the vaccine on monkeys, some monkeys were cured. This research of the team was accepted by a pharmaceutical journal. Later due to lack of money, trial of this nasal spray vaccine on humans could not be conducted.
Another vaccine technique is made in a tablet form that may provide a benefit as decreased cold chain need and quick and measurable production. In January 2015, funds were provided to produce this Ebola vaccine for first trial.
Undetermined Ebola origin
Transmission of Ebola from one human to other can lead to increase the count of affected individuals. In some earlier Ebola outbreaks, monkeys were also host of Ebola and several transmissions occurred upon touching or eating infected animals.
When an infection is introduced in a human, virus can directly transit in others through damaged skin, mucous membrane such a sin eyes, nose or mouth. The virus may also transfer through contacting blood or other body fluids like semen, breast milk, vomit and urine of infected person. Contacting used materials of patients such as needles and syringes, touching infected fruit bats or monkeys.
Ebola doesn’t spread through air, water or food. But in Africa, the virus can spread by contacting bush-meat (killing wild animals for food) and touching infected bats. There is no confirmation that mosquitoes or other insects can transmit Ebola virus. Only some species of animals have described sensitivity to be infected with and transfer this virus.
Ebola Origin is still a mystery for the researchers. Healthcare operators taking care of Ebola patients and other people like family and friends who have stay near the patient are also sensitive to receive the virus. While outbreaks of this virus, the disease spreads rapidly if precautions are not taken. Exposure to Ebola may take place in healthcare service places such as in hospitals where the operators do not wear suitable clothing for personal protection.
Secured medical apparatus should be utilized by heath care servers while providing care to patients. Complete cleansing and disposal of equipments like needles and syringes are also necessary. If equipments cannot be disposed, these should be sterilized prior to reuse. Virus transmission may occur of an apparatus is not completely sterilized and can increase the transmission rate.
Researchers are fully aware of the presence of Ebola virus in male and female body fluids even if they are recovered. Therefore the studies are continued to determine the life of Ebola and its transmission probability while intimacy. So couples should also be careful if either of partners was affected by this virus earlier.
In 1976, Ebola origin occurred for the first time in Sudan and Zaire. During the first outbreak around 300 people were infected and the death rate was about 53%. After a few months another outbreak occurred in Yambuku, Zaire, with higher death rates of up to 88%. Inspite of the extreme efforts made by professional, experienced and committed researchers, the main source of Ebola virus could not be recognized. Another outbreak occurred in 1989 when infected monkeys were brought to Virgina from Philippines. However few people were infected by the virus but they were saved through on time treatment and the infection did not last longer.
Ebola virus transmission can be controlled within 2 to 21 days if a suspected person takes medical help. This is the standard period for the symptom development of this virus. If a person doesn’t develop any symptoms within this period, he or she is successfully recovered from the disease.
CdC Ebola and security measures to protect from virus
A news from the New York Times newspaper stated, in December 22, an operator working at the US locations for Disease Control and Prevention or CDC Ebola might be exposed to deadly Ebola virus when samples that were containing virus were transferred from a highly protective lab to a place that was not ready to deal with the virus. The operator who was in recipient lab and might be open to the wrong samples wore the necessary security items such as gloves and gown but face was not protected. The mistake was noticed another day and classified as a human error.
The protection breach comes at the end of a disturbing year for legal administrations. In June, almost 75 CDC researchers were engaged to Bacilius Anthracis when sensitive samples were sent to poorly maintained labs. In July a combination of benign avian influenza virus with severely pathogenic H5N1 took place in a transfer from CDC influenza lab to an Agricultural lab. Corresponding to the latest incident, Najmedin meshkati of University of Southern California told the NYT that they cannot say anything. It is another sign that this company requires to take serious steps to enhance its protective agriculture.
An operator who might be shown to Ebola virus, is diagnosed for 21 days. Other works who entered the laboratory that obtained wrong samples are improbable to have been exposed, told by a company and there is no harm on public because the samples are completely stored in CDC Ebola campus that is located in Atlanta.
For the treatment of Ebola virus, till now none of medicine is approved by Foods and Drug administration. If you visit to any area that is a place of Ebola outbreak, you should follow the below steps:
- Stay fully hygienic such as clean your hands using soap and water or using alcohol derived hand sanitizer and don’t touch any kind of blood as well as body fluids.
- Don’t touch the materials that were earlier used for an infected patient such to deal with his blood or other body fluids like clothes, bedding, medical apparatus and needles.
- Do not participate in funeral of the deceased person due to Ebola.
- Stay protective from contacting bats, monkeys or blood, fluids and don’t eat bushmeat.
- Don’t use medical facilities of hospitals where Ebola patients are under treatment in West Africa. Contact with US embassy to get some information about secured medical agencies.
- When you arrive back to your country, evaluate your health for 21 days and get medical care quickly to analyze if you develop Ebola symptoms.
Healthcare operators who were in contact with Ebola should follow these guidelines:
- Wear suitable personal security material.
- Practice under suitable infection control and sterilization standards.
- Separate patients with Ebola from other patients.
- Prevent direct, unsafe contact with died bodies of Ebola patients.
- Inform health agencies if you had contact body fluids of Ebola patient like saliva, urine, semen of a person.